**Book 1 – The Illusion of Dark Matter**

**Author:** Victor A Meyer

**Last Version: ** 3/28/2018

**# of Words:** 40,043

**Writing Status:** Third Draft – Complete

**Publication Status:** Unpublished

The first book in *The Romeo Effect* series of books introduces the concept of the Romeo Effect. It then challenges two assumptions made by Albert Einstein in his Theory of Relativity. Based on two new assumptions, the book shows how we have the wrong concept for the Doppler Effect for Light. The Doppler Effect is not responsible for redshift and cannot be used to measure the velocity of distant stars. As a result, Dark Matter is nothing more than an illusion caused by an incorrect understanding of the universe.

__List of Chapters__

__List of Chapters__

**Chapter 1 – The Romeo Effect: **The concept of the Romeo Effect is introduced based on *Romeo and Juliet* by William Shakespeare. The question is asked regarding the difference between “theory” and “truth”. A history of theories from the geocentric theory of Claudius Ptolemy to the modern Big Bang Theory is presented. Einstein’s Theory of Relativity is introduced with emphasis placed on his assumptions of a constant speed of light and spacetime consisting of three spatial dimensions and one temporal dimension.

**Chapter 2 – The Argument for Dark Matter:** Formulas for orbital velocity, redshift velocity, and gravitational redshift are introduced. Vera Rubin and Kent Ford perform redshift analysis on the orbital velocities of stars in the disk of distant galaxies. In galaxy after galaxy, these orbital velocities are flat. As a result, there must be Dark Matter surrounding all galaxies. A hypothetic galaxy NGC 3198 is introduced – the real NGC 3198 was studied by K.G. Begeman. A simplified process is developed to analyze the orbital velocities of the stars the hypothetical galaxy.

**Chapter 3 – The Five-Dimensional Universe:** The traditional arguments are presented for why the location of the Big Bang cannot be found in our night sky. The WMAP and Planck spacecraft discover that the universe is flat. The Hubble Space Telescope discovers that the origin of our universe is at the farthest distance in any direction of the sky. The timelines of the night sky and the Big Bank lead to a mathematical contradiction. The only way the contradiction can be resolved is with a fourth spatial dimension.

**Chapter 4 – The Spatial-Time Dimension of the Universe:** In addition to the three spatial dimensions (length, width, and height) and one temporal time dimension of Einstein’s spacetime concept, our universe is moving through a fourth spatial dimension – the Spatial-Time Dimension. For the universe to be mathematically flat and for the location of the Big Bang to be at the farthest distance in all directions, this Spatial-Time dimension must exist within the Multiverse.

**Chapter 5 – The Not So Constant Speed of Light: **Einstein’s Principle of Invariant Light Speed assumption in his Special Theory of Relativity is introduced. His concepts of Inertial and Accelerated Frames of Reference are also introduced. The ability to measure the velocity of a random photon moving between frames of reference is shown to be impossible. Rather than the speed of light being independent of its source, it is also plausible to assume the speed of light is dependent on its source.

**Chapter 6 – Do We Really Understand Redshift:** The traditional concepts of the wave equation, electronic spectrums, absorption and emission lines, and redshift are introduced. The quantum mechanics view of energy and momentum of photons have an issue regarding the wave equation. The issue is also raised that Hubble’s Law may not be interpreted correctly. The Inverse Power Law suggests the Cosmic Microwave Background is losing temperature because of moving through the fourth Spatial-Time Dimension.

**Chapter 7 – The Doppler Effect for Light:** Traditionally, the Doppler Effect for Light is explained in terms of the Doppler Effect for Sound. Along with the Principle of Invariant Light Speed, the Doppler Effect produces observable redshift indicating the velocity of distant stars relative to Earth. The differences in the Doppler Effect between sound and light is explained. When coupled with the non-constant speed of light, the new explanation of the Doppler Effect for Light produces no observable redshift. Also, the new explanation supports conservation of both energy and momentum in moving photons.

**Chapter 8 – A New Interpretation of Redshift:** A new Non-Entropic Redshift formula using emitted and observed velocities of photons is derived from the traditional redshift formulas. Redshift is examined in terms of a photons journey from an emitting star to an observer on Earth. Both Initial Redshift and Relativistic Redshift (i.e. Doppler Effect) are found to produce no observable redshift. However, gravitation does produce observable redshift. Entropic Redshift is the biggest producer of redshift as entropy causes photons to lose usable energy as they move through the Spatial-Time dimension. A new interpretation of Hubble’s Law is provided.

**Chapter 9 – The Argument Against Dark Matter: ** The hypothetical NGC 3198 galaxy is re-analyzed in terms of the non-constant speed of light and the new Spatial-Time Dimension. Since a star’s velocity is not reflected in the observed redshift, only the redshift due to gravitational forces of the NGC 3198 galaxy itself produces observable redshift changes. These redshift difference are orders of magnitude smaller than the differences in orbital velocities. As a result, the observed flat lining of the redshift of the various stars in the disk of a galaxy are exactly what is being observed. There is no need to invent Dark Matter.

**Chapter 10 – The Illusion of Dark Matter:** No Dark Matter has ever been directly detected. It is concluded the need for Dark Matter is an error factor due to the wrong understanding of what redshift is telling us (i.e. The Romeo Effect). The history of redshift is examined to identify various times in history that scientists should have questioned if they had the right understanding of redshift. A summary of the various point raised in the book is presented.

**Theses Discussed in Book**

**Thesis #1** – The speed of light is non-constant

**Thesis #4** – Anything can travel faster than *c*

**Thesis #6** – Spatial dimensions are Euclidean

**Thesis #7** – There exists a fourth Spatial-Time Dimension in the Multiverse

**Thesis #13** – The speed of light is dependent on the relative velocity of the light source

**Thesis #14** – The wave equation is only valid when a photon is initially emitted within the At Rest Inertial Frame of Reference

**Thesis #16** – Our universe follows an Inverse Cube Law based on entropy

**Thesis #17** – The frequency, f, of a photon decreases over time due to entropy

**Thesis #18** – The wavelength, λ, of a photon changes as the speed of the photon changes

**Thesis #19** – The Doppler Effect for Light does not function like the Doppler Effect for Sound

**Thesis #20** – The Doppler Effect for Light causes no observable redshift

**Thesis #21** – Hubble’s Law is not interpreted correctly

**Thesis #22** – Entropic Redshift only increases red-shifting over time

**Thesis #23** – Non-Entropic Redshift can be either red-shifted or blue-shifted

**Thesis #24** – The CMB is an example of Entropic Redshift over time

**Thesis #25** – Dark Matter does not exist